Nepal After Unification to 1950

king Prithivi Narayan Shah introduced many reforms in army organisation, foreign affairs, cultureal activities, social system, economic conditions, religion and in trade. After the death of King Prithivi Narayan Shah, Nepal was ruled by his son King Pratap Singh Shah and then by King Rana Bahadur Shah and then King, Girbanyuddha Shah. The process of territorial expansion towards the south initated under King Pratap Shah, King Rana Bahadur Shah and King Girban Bikram Shah put Nepal on a collision course with the British East India CCompany, which was extending its hold over India. The war that took place in 1814 was concluded in 1816 under the treatyof Sugauli. It reduced the territorial extent of Nepal to almost what is now. After the treaty of Sugauli, a British Resident was apponted in Kathmandu. Dr Wallish visited Nepal in 1817 and carried on his botanical researches for a year. Even the British resident and his officials were not allowed to visit more than the narrow limits assigned to them.
During the reign of King Rejendra Bir Bikaram Shah, Jung Bahadur Rana rose to power and laid the foundation of an autocratic regime which lasted for 104 years. Jung Bahadur Rana visited England in 1850 with a larger retinue on the 15th of January. The door to Nepal was not opened to all foreigners except some British personalities who had to ask for permission from the vovernment before their arrival. Mr Schlagintweit was Permitted to visit the country in 1856 and carried out some of scientific expeditions in Nepal. A clear picture of the movement of foreigers in the country is observed by the editor Daiel wright, M. A., M.D. late Surgeon major in H. M.’s India Medical Service, ad Residency Surgeon at Kathmandu. In his book ‘History of Nepal’ published in 1877, he writes:
The name Nepal, however, is restricted by the natives of; the country to the valley surrounding the capital, and it is of this portion of the country alone that the following history and the present sketch treat. This is the only part of the kingdom which is open to investigation of Europeans; and it would be a hopeless task to attempt the description of places which cannot be visited or the collection of accurate information regarding a country where every inquiry made by European is viewed with the most jealous suspicion, where the collection of statistics is looked on as more folly and where, above all,Baron Munchausen himself would have been considered a marvel of accuracy and truthfulness.”